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bibliographie:grady_tower [2015/09/21 14:57]
luc
bibliographie:grady_tower [2015/09/29 09:47] (Version actuelle)
luc [Biographie]
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 ===== Biographie ===== ===== Biographie =====
  
-Grady M Towers était un [[articles:THQI|THQI]] faisant partie de l'organisation [[wp>Triple_Nine_Society|Triple Nine Society]] ([[http://www.polymath-systems.com/intel/hiqsocs/hiqarch/tnregent/tnsexa96.html|confirmé]]), de [[wp>Prometheus_Society|The Prometheus Society]] ([[http://www.prometheussociety.org/officers/index.html|confirmé]]), de [[wp>Mega_Society|The Mega Society]] ([[http://www.megasociety.net/noesis/149/|confirmé ?]]), de [[http://www.toponesociety.com|Top One Percent Society]] (à confirmer).+Grady M Towers était un [[articles:THQI|THQI]] faisant partie de l'organisation [[wp>Triple_Nine_Society|Triple Nine Society]] ([[http://www.polymath-systems.com/intel/hiqsocs/hiqarch/tnregent/tnsexa96.html|confirmé]]), de [[wp>Prometheus_Society|The Prometheus Society]] ([[http://www.prometheussociety.org/officers/index.html|confirmé]]), de [[wp>Mega_Society|The Mega Society]] ([[http://www.megasociety.net/noesis/149/|confirmé]]), de [[http://www.toponesociety.com|Top One Percent Society]] (à confirmer).
  
-une époque, il a été anthropologue, et a vécu plusieurs années avec une tribu indienne.+À une époque, il a été anthropologue, et a vécu plusieurs années avec une tribu indienne.
  
 Il a été en contact avec les sociétés pour très hauts QI pendant des années, principalement en écrivant des articles et en les proposant à la publication dans le journal de ces sociétés, et en maintenant une correspondance avec quelques personnes qu'il a sélectionnées avec soin. Il a contribué à l'étalonnage de tests utilisés par The Mega Society (une personne sur un million). Il a été en contact avec les sociétés pour très hauts QI pendant des années, principalement en écrivant des articles et en les proposant à la publication dans le journal de ces sociétés, et en maintenant une correspondance avec quelques personnes qu'il a sélectionnées avec soin. Il a contribué à l'étalonnage de tests utilisés par The Mega Society (une personne sur un million).
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   * [[http://prometheussociety.org/cms/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1:theoutsiders&catid=10:articles-favorite&Itemid=103|The Outsiders]] -- les recherches de [[wp>Lewis_Terman|Lewis M. Terman]] et de [[wp>Leta_Stetter_Hollingworth|Leta S. Hollingworth]] revisitées : il en ressort qu'un THQI a jusqu'à 3 fois plus de chances de développer des problèmes d'ajustement et des problèmes psychologiques, et qu'il a une forte probabilité de beaucoup s'ennuyer en classe, d'[[articles:scanneur|être un scanneur]] et [[articles:TDAH]], d'avoir [[zcf>t829-le-probleme-consistant-a-avoir-trop-d-aptitudes|« trop d'aptitudes »]], mais pas celle de supporter les idiots, et finalement de se retrouver en [[zcf>t748-le-qi-et-le-probleme-de-l-inadaptation-sociale|isolement social]], avec la sensation d'être un étranger.   * [[http://prometheussociety.org/cms/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1:theoutsiders&catid=10:articles-favorite&Itemid=103|The Outsiders]] -- les recherches de [[wp>Lewis_Terman|Lewis M. Terman]] et de [[wp>Leta_Stetter_Hollingworth|Leta S. Hollingworth]] revisitées : il en ressort qu'un THQI a jusqu'à 3 fois plus de chances de développer des problèmes d'ajustement et des problèmes psychologiques, et qu'il a une forte probabilité de beaucoup s'ennuyer en classe, d'[[articles:scanneur|être un scanneur]] et [[articles:TDAH]], d'avoir [[zcf>t829-le-probleme-consistant-a-avoir-trop-d-aptitudes|« trop d'aptitudes »]], mais pas celle de supporter les idiots, et finalement de se retrouver en [[zcf>t748-le-qi-et-le-probleme-de-l-inadaptation-sociale|isolement social]], avec la sensation d'être un étranger.
  
-<spoiler |The Outsiders – A defination extremely high IQ above 170 apply to themselves texte complet >+<spoiler |The Outsiders – A defination extremely high IQ above 170 apply to themselves – texte complet >
 His name was William James Sidis, and his IQ was estimated at between 250 and 300 [8, p. 283]. At eighteen months he could read The New York Times, at two he taught himself Latin, at three he learned Greek. By the time he was an adult he could speak more than forty languages and dialects. He gained entrance to Harvard at eleven, and gave a lecture on four-dimensional bodies to the Harvard Mathematical Club his first year. He graduated cum laude at sixteen, and became the youngest professor in history. He deduced the possibility of black holes more than twenty years before Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar published An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure. His life held possibilities for achievement that few people can imagine. Of all the prodigies for which there are records, his was probably the most powerful intellect of all. And yet it all came to nothing. He soon gave up his position as a professor, and for the rest of his life wandered from one menial job to another. His experiences as a child prodigy had proven so painful that he decided for the rest of his life to shun public exposure at all costs. Henceforth, he denied his gifts, refused to think about mathematics, and above all refused to perform as he had been made to do as a child. Instead, he devoted his intellect almost exclusively to the collection of streetcar transfers, and to the study of the history of his native Boston. He worked hard at becoming a normal human being, but never entirely succeeded. He found the concept of beauty, for example, to be completely incomprehensible, and the idea of sex repelled him. At fifteen he took a vow of celibacy, which he apparently kept for the remainder of his life, dying a virgin at the age of 46. He wore a vest summer and winter, and never learned to bathe regularly. A comment that Aldous Huxley once made about Sir Isaac Newton might equally have been said of Sidis.\\ His name was William James Sidis, and his IQ was estimated at between 250 and 300 [8, p. 283]. At eighteen months he could read The New York Times, at two he taught himself Latin, at three he learned Greek. By the time he was an adult he could speak more than forty languages and dialects. He gained entrance to Harvard at eleven, and gave a lecture on four-dimensional bodies to the Harvard Mathematical Club his first year. He graduated cum laude at sixteen, and became the youngest professor in history. He deduced the possibility of black holes more than twenty years before Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar published An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure. His life held possibilities for achievement that few people can imagine. Of all the prodigies for which there are records, his was probably the most powerful intellect of all. And yet it all came to nothing. He soon gave up his position as a professor, and for the rest of his life wandered from one menial job to another. His experiences as a child prodigy had proven so painful that he decided for the rest of his life to shun public exposure at all costs. Henceforth, he denied his gifts, refused to think about mathematics, and above all refused to perform as he had been made to do as a child. Instead, he devoted his intellect almost exclusively to the collection of streetcar transfers, and to the study of the history of his native Boston. He worked hard at becoming a normal human being, but never entirely succeeded. He found the concept of beauty, for example, to be completely incomprehensible, and the idea of sex repelled him. At fifteen he took a vow of celibacy, which he apparently kept for the remainder of his life, dying a virgin at the age of 46. He wore a vest summer and winter, and never learned to bathe regularly. A comment that Aldous Huxley once made about Sir Isaac Newton might equally have been said of Sidis.\\
 \\ \\
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 [[http://hiqnews.megafoundation.org/Terman_Summary.htm|The Terman Study]] : Ce commentaire de l'étude de Terman n'est pas de Grady M. Towers, mais cite The Outsiders [[http://hiqnews.megafoundation.org/Terman_Summary.htm|The Terman Study]] : Ce commentaire de l'étude de Terman n'est pas de Grady M. Towers, mais cite The Outsiders
  
-  * [[http://www.eskimo.com/~miyaguch/grady/emptypromise.html|The Empty Promise]] -- Après que [[wp>Lewis_Terman|Lewis M. Terman]] ait indiqué qu'un QI très élevé dans l'enfance n'était pas un prédicteur de réussite sociale, l'auteur tente de démontrer que la réussite sociale nécessite un haut QI, et y parvient partiellement (QI moyen de ceux "qui ont réussi" : 125, avec une forte dispersion). Note : l'auteur n'étudie pas l'hypothèse selon laquelle un très haut QI dans l'enfance pourrait être un handicap à la réussite sociale, pour cause d'isolement social. +  * [[http://miyaguchi.4sigma.org/gradytowers/emptypromise.html|The Empty Promise]] -- Après que [[wp>Lewis_Terman|Lewis M. Terman]] ait indiqué qu'un QI très élevé dans l'enfance n'était pas un prédicteur de réussite sociale, l'auteur tente de démontrer que la réussite sociale nécessite un haut QI, et y parvient partiellement (QI moyen de ceux "qui ont réussi" : 125, avec une forte dispersion). Note : l'auteur n'étudie pas l'hypothèse selon laquelle un très haut QI dans l'enfance pourrait être un handicap à la réussite sociale, pour cause d'isolement social. 
-  * Theories of Multiple Intelligence+  * [[http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-chat/2242985/posts|Theories of Multiple Intelligence]]
  
-<spoiler |Theories of Multiple Intelligence texte complet >The mathematical technique called factor analysis was invented by psychologists specifically to answer the age old question, "Is there more than one kind of intelligence?" We now know that there are two: one called fluid g, measured by culture fair tests such as the Raven Progressive Matrices or the LAIT, and another called crystallized g, measured by culture loaded tests like the Concept Mastery Test or the Miller Analogies Test. What we call g has been defined as the ability to "educe relations and correlates," or in more everyday terms, the abilities for inductive ("relations") and deductive ("correlates") reasoning. Culture fair tests measure the ability to educe relations and correlates using abstract diagrams, and other material that requires only a minimum of formal learning. Culture loaded tests measure the ability to educe relations and correlates using learned and over learned material, such as vocabulary, algorithms for arithmetic or multiplication, recognition of common objects and their uses, etc. Ordinary IQ tests measure both kinds of intelligence, but not necessarily to the same degree; they are generally biased in favor of crystallized g.\\+<spoiler |Theories of Multiple Intelligence – texte complet >The mathematical technique called factor analysis was invented by psychologists specifically to answer the age old question, "Is there more than one kind of intelligence?" We now know that there are two: one called fluid g, measured by culture fair tests such as the Raven Progressive Matrices or the LAIT, and another called crystallized g, measured by culture loaded tests like the Concept Mastery Test or the Miller Analogies Test. What we call g has been defined as the ability to "educe relations and correlates," or in more everyday terms, the abilities for inductive ("relations") and deductive ("correlates") reasoning. Culture fair tests measure the ability to educe relations and correlates using abstract diagrams, and other material that requires only a minimum of formal learning. Culture loaded tests measure the ability to educe relations and correlates using learned and over learned material, such as vocabulary, algorithms for arithmetic or multiplication, recognition of common objects and their uses, etc. Ordinary IQ tests measure both kinds of intelligence, but not necessarily to the same degree; they are generally biased in favor of crystallized g.\\
 \\ \\
 The currently accepted relationship between these two kinds of ability is called the investment theory of intelligence. It says, in effect, that we are all born with a certain raw ability, or the eduction of relations and correlates, which can be measured with culture fair tests. As we get older, we "invest" this fluid g in certain kinds of judgment skills, such as those involved in doing a mathematical word problem, or parsing a sentence. When we are young, the theory goes, our formal educations are so much alike that we all invest our fluid g in much the same kinds of judgment skills.  That means that our fluid intelligence and our crystallized intelligence are so similar at an early age that it's almost impossible to tell them apart. After we leave school, however, we all begin to invest our fluid g abilities in different things. Measures of fluid g and crystallized g begin to draw apart. Those that invest their fluid g in school-like activities, such as accounting or law, continue to show intellectual growth on conventional (crystallized) IQ tests.  Those that put their intelligence to work in other ways, such as becoming ranchers or artists, will not show the same intellectual growth, and may even show a decline in IQ on conventional measures of intelligence. \\ The currently accepted relationship between these two kinds of ability is called the investment theory of intelligence. It says, in effect, that we are all born with a certain raw ability, or the eduction of relations and correlates, which can be measured with culture fair tests. As we get older, we "invest" this fluid g in certain kinds of judgment skills, such as those involved in doing a mathematical word problem, or parsing a sentence. When we are young, the theory goes, our formal educations are so much alike that we all invest our fluid g in much the same kinds of judgment skills.  That means that our fluid intelligence and our crystallized intelligence are so similar at an early age that it's almost impossible to tell them apart. After we leave school, however, we all begin to invest our fluid g abilities in different things. Measures of fluid g and crystallized g begin to draw apart. Those that invest their fluid g in school-like activities, such as accounting or law, continue to show intellectual growth on conventional (crystallized) IQ tests.  Those that put their intelligence to work in other ways, such as becoming ranchers or artists, will not show the same intellectual growth, and may even show a decline in IQ on conventional measures of intelligence. \\
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 Source : http://www.prometheussociety.org</spoiler> Source : http://www.prometheussociety.org</spoiler>
  
-  * Intelligence and g +  * [[http://miyaguchi.4sigma.org/gradytowers/iq_intell.html|IQ vs. Intelligence]] 
-<spoiler |Intelligence and g - texte complet >Did you know that //Homo erectus// had an IQ of about 45? This is not just a guess, but the result of an experiment carried out by Thomas Wynn, an anthropologist at the University of Colorado.\\+<spoiler |IQ vs. Intelligence – texte complet >Did you know that //Homo erectus// had an IQ of about 45? This is not just a guess, but the result of an experiment carried out by Thomas Wynn, an anthropologist at the University of Colorado.\\
 \\ \\
 //Homo erectus// produced a category of stone tool that anthropologists call the Acheulean tool industry. Dr. Wynn discovered that it takes a mental age of at least seven years to learn how to reproduce an Acheulean tool. Using the classic formula\\ //Homo erectus// produced a category of stone tool that anthropologists call the Acheulean tool industry. Dr. Wynn discovered that it takes a mental age of at least seven years to learn how to reproduce an Acheulean tool. Using the classic formula\\
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 IQ tests measure something real and something terribly important, but they do not assess all of what is called intelligence. Many important mental abilities are left out. Abilities responsible for art, music, dance, cooking, mechanical invention, clerical exactness, foreign languages, caring for a baby, defeating an enemy in war, and so on, have little connection with IQ. They have little connection because literacy and numeracy have little to do with excellence in these fields.\\ IQ tests measure something real and something terribly important, but they do not assess all of what is called intelligence. Many important mental abilities are left out. Abilities responsible for art, music, dance, cooking, mechanical invention, clerical exactness, foreign languages, caring for a baby, defeating an enemy in war, and so on, have little connection with IQ. They have little connection because literacy and numeracy have little to do with excellence in these fields.\\
 \\ \\
-IQ tests are powerful predictors only in the fields in which literacy and numeracy are of central importance. These are the core abilities responsible for the creation, maintenance and progress of civilization. Without them there could be no literature, law, religion, philosophy. There could also be no mathematics, science, technology, market economy, computer science, etc. No one could have more respect for these qualities than I have, but I don't mistake them for an index of human worth. There are other mental qualities of equal worth not assessed by IQ tests.\\ +IQ tests are powerful predictors only in the fields in which literacy and numeracy are of central importance. These are the core abilities responsible for the creation, maintenance and progress of civilization. Without them there could be no literature, law, religion, philosophy. There could also be no mathematics, science, technology, market economy, computer science, etc. No one could have more respect for these qualities than I have, but I don't mistake them for an index of human worth. There are other mental qualities of equal worth not assessed by IQ tests.</spoiler>
-\\ +
-Source : http://www.eskimo.com/~miyaguch/grady/iq_intell.html</spoiler>+
  
- +  * [[https://web.archive.org/web/20130902025647/http://www.eskimo.com/~miyaguch/grady/realworld.html|IQ and real world success]] 
-  * [[http://www.eskimo.com/~miyaguch/grady/iq_intell.html|IQ vs. Intelligence]] +  * [[http://miyaguchi.4sigma.org/gradytowers/diff_intell.html|Different Kinds of Intelligence]] 
-  * [[http://www.eskimo.com/~miyaguch/grady/realworld.html|IQ and real world success]] +  * [[http://miyaguchi.4sigma.org/gradytowers/societies.html|On using multiple tests for high IQ society admissions]] and [[http://miyaguchi.4sigma.org/gradytowers/followup.html|Followup]] 
-  * [[http://www.eskimo.com/~miyaguch/grady/diff_intell.html|Different Kinds of Intelligence]] +  * [[http://miyaguchi.4sigma.org/gradytowers/about_rasch.html|About Rasch scores]] 
-  * [[http://www.eskimo.com/~miyaguch/grady/societies.html|On using multiple tests for high IQ society admissions]] +  * [[http://miyaguchi.4sigma.org/gradytowers/howtonorm.html|How To Norm a Super-High IQ Test]]
-  * [[http://www.eskimo.com/~miyaguch/grady/about_rasch.html|About Rasch scores]]+
   * [[http://www.megasociety.net/noesis/149/iq&pear.html|IQ, Creativity and the Twisted Pear, or Why the Sidekick Gets the Girl]]   * [[http://www.megasociety.net/noesis/149/iq&pear.html|IQ, Creativity and the Twisted Pear, or Why the Sidekick Gets the Girl]]
 +  * [[http://prometheussociety.org/cms/index.php/articles/da-capo|Da Capo]]
  
 ===== Annexes ===== ===== Annexes =====
  
 ==== Articles connexes ==== ==== Articles connexes ====
 +
 [[articles:THQI]] -- Problèmes fréquemment rencontrés, témoignages, positionnement social \\ [[articles:THQI]] -- Problèmes fréquemment rencontrés, témoignages, positionnement social \\
 [[articles:qi]] [[articles:qi]]
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